Retooling the Workforce for Small Modular Reactors
Dec15

Retooling the Workforce for Small Modular Reactors

Smaller reactors have many advantages, but in order to be cost effective in competitive energy markets a typical small modular reactor (SMR) will need to operate with a much smaller workforce than today’s large commercial nuclear energy facilities.  This will mandate a retooling of existing nuclear training programs to align with the knowledge and skills needed by the SMR staff. As opposed to fossil-fueled power plants in which the majority of operating costs are associated with the fuel they burn, the majority of the costs of generating electricity from nuclear energy are associated with the costs of capital to build the plant, and the ongoing cost of people needed to operate and maintain (O&M) the plant.  The capital costs, determined by construction & financing costs, are generally fixed during the first decades of operation.  The O&M costs, however, vary over the life of the plant and are highly dependent on overall labor costs; the number of people required and their salaries and benefits, contracted labor costs, and the cost of out-sourced services. For this reason the long-term economic viability of nuclear energy facilities relies upon maintaining capacity factors high and labor costs reasonable and predictable.  Obviously, the balance sheet also depends on the structure of the energy market in which the facility is located. Anti-nuclear groups understand this connection between labor costs and economic viability.  For years their strategy has been to convince nuclear regulators of the need for ever-tougher standards resulting in larger and larger staff sizes and thus tighter profit margins.  They are, in a very deliberate way, working to regulate nuclear energy out of business.  Coupled with lower electricity market prices brought about by falling natural gas prices, these higher labor costs mean some smaller nuclear plants are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain profitability. Utilities planning to deploy SMRs can expect these same anti-nuclear groups to push for regulations to limit their ability to operate with the smaller staff sizes needed. Using “ball park” numbers, today’s large 1000 MWe nuclear plants typically employ a staff of about 700 people, or about 0.7 people per megawatt. At this ratio a 100 MWe SMR would employ only about 70.  Under today’s paradigm of division of labor within a nuclear plant, separate groups of specialized workers perform various functions; operators operate the plant, maintenance technicians maintain and repair the equipment, chemists monitor and control the chemistry within plant systems, planners and schedulers do the planning and scheduling, and radiation protection technicians monitor radiation levels and help ensure everyone works safely.  The staff size enables economies of scale; in this case specialization is efficient because the amount of work...

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The Global Nuclear Renaissance Rolls On, Career Opportunities Continue
Dec07

The Global Nuclear Renaissance Rolls On, Career Opportunities Continue

Despite claims by anti-nuclear groups of the pending demise of nuclear energy production in the United States, the nuclear renaissance is alive and well. According to the non-partisan Energy Information Administration, nuclear energy production in the USA will continue to expand for the next 25 years. Electricity generation from nuclear power plants grows by 14 percent in the AEO2013 Reference case, from 790 billion kilowatt-hours in 2011 to 903 billion kilowatt-hours in 2040, accounting for about 17 percent of total generation in 2040 (compared with 19 percent in 2011). Nuclear generating capacity increases from 101 gigawatts in 2011 to a high of 114 gigawatts in 2025 through a combination of new construction (5.5 gigawatts), uprates at existing plants (8.0 gigawatts), and retirements (0.6 gigawatts). Coupled with retirements among the 120,000 people who work in the nuclear industry, this expansion means continued career opportunities building, operating and maintaining the nation’s fleet of commercial reactors.  And this is just the start.  In addition to the 100 commercial nuclear plants operating in United States, there are 335 in operation in other nations and 73 more under construction (including four in the USA). Recently announced shutdowns of four nuclear energy facilities in the USA has done little to dampen the demand for talent; the industry has more than enough demand for knowledgeable workers to absorb those displaced by plant closures. While some older nuclear plants will gradually go out of service over the next few decades they’ll be replaced with larger power plants that require larger staff sizes.  New technologies like small modular reactors may add even more jobs in advanced manufacturing and construction. What does all this mean for career opportunities? Every nuclear plant employs at about 600 to 1500 people depending on the power plant size, the technology used, and the number of reactors at the facility.  In the USA alone the combination of modest expansion and hiring to replace about 40% of the workforce over the next decade means nuclear energy companies will hire 30,000 to 50,000 new engineers, operators, and technicians.  The numbers are even larger in other countries where growth will create more than 70,000 career opportunities as new facilities come on line. If you are interested in more information about careers in the nuclear industry, check out the information at the links below: Explore Amazing Career Opportunities in Nuclear Energy 5 Nuclear Jobs Starting at $50,000 that don’t require a 4-year degree...

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Explore Amazing Career Opportunities in Nuclear Energy
Dec03

Explore Amazing Career Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

The time has never been better to explore amazing career opportunities that exist for people interested in joining the nuclear renaissance. Today there are 435 nuclear energy facilities operating around the world, and another 72 are under construction. If you are a middle or high school student (or are the parent of one) considering college alternatives, you would be hard pressed to find a better investment than earning an associates or bachelors degree in nuclear-related science, engineering, or technology. Opportunities for entry level positions have not been this rich at any time during the past three decades, and the nuclear industry is partnering with many schools to ensure graduates have the knowledge and skill for success as power plant engineers, operators, and technicians. Because of a combination of national and international trends, there have never been more opportunities for young people to begin careers in the nuclear industry. About 120,000 people are currently employed in the U.S. nuclear industry. Over the next several years, many of these workers will retire. As a result, the industry will need to hire more than 25,000 new employees just to maintain the existing workforce. The economic slowdown over the past few years has caused many workers to delay their retirement. Today retirements are once again on the rise because 401K balances have recovered and workers have earned additional credits in pension plans. For example, in 2013 about 2,000 workers retired from the 100 operating nuclear plants in the United States, prompting many utilities to increase hiring. Four new nuclear energy facilities being built in Georgia and South Carolina will each add up to 2,400 workers during construction, plus 400 to 700 permanent jobs when each is operating. In addition, the nuclear industry is booming overseas with more than 70 plants under construction around the world and many more planned. All of this means ample opportunities for rewarding careers in many nuclear related fields. The industry hires almost every type of engineer, not just nuclear engineers. The most common are mechanical, electrical, civil, and power systems engineers. Since there are engineering colleges and universities in every state that offer one or more of these degree programs, opportunities are plentiful. Earning a bachelors degree in these engineering majors opens the door to an entry-level engineer position with a starting salary of approximately $60,000 to $65,000. Some of the positions in greatest demand at nuclear plants are power plant operators and technicians. These opportunities generally require an associate’s degree or equivalent training. Starting salaries range from around $50,000. As workers gain experience, salaries can rise $20,000 or higher to an average of $65,000 to $70,000, and overtime...

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5 Nuclear Jobs Starting at $50,000 Without a 4-year Degree
Nov30

5 Nuclear Jobs Starting at $50,000 Without a 4-year Degree

“If I only knew then what I know now!” I was having a conversation with a friend who had spent years working full time while putting himself through college. His business degree had landed him a good job in the corporate support organization of  a large electric utility.  He was happy to have it and his smarts, maturity, and work ethic had served him well. Yet to some extent he lamented his choice of a four-year business degree because he saw friends in nuclear technical fields advancing faster and earning more money.  Rather than being graduates of four-year colleges or universities, many had started their careers with an associate degree, military training or a certificate in a skilled trade. In many cases this meant they began earning more at an earlier age and had little student loan debt.  If my colleague had been aware of these opportunities he may have chosen a different path. In the least he would  have made an informed decision. Even in the highly technical field of nuclear energy there are many jobs that do not require a 4-year degree for an entry-level position.  Most of these have starting wages of about $50,000 per year (more if you include overtime and bonuses). In each of these positions there is an established career progression. Pay increases as you complete company-provided training and achieve higher levels of qualification.  I have known many coworkers in these types of jobs who with just two or three years of experience routinely earn more than $100,000 per year with overtime and bonuses.  Even better, these positions are the entry points for supervisory and management positions meaning there is opportunity for long-term career growth. So what are these great jobs that don’t require a 4-year degree?  Here are some examples: Radiation Protection Technician (also called health physics technician) Radiation protection technicians monitor radiation levels throughout the nuclear energy facility. They also maintain and calibrate radiation protection instruments and equipment. They play an important role in helping fellow employees work safely in areas where radiation levels are greater than natural background. Electrical Technician (also called nuclear electrician) Electrical technicians install, repair and maintain the highly complex electrical and electronic equipment in the nuclear plant. They work on power plant equipment like motors, circuit breakers, electrical cables, switchgear, generators, transformers, and batteries. Instrument & Controls Technician I&C technicians are the “industrial computer technicians” in nuclear energy facilities. They install, test, calibrate, troubleshoot, and repair nuclear plant instrumentation and control equipment and systems. Mechanical Maintenance Technician (also called nuclear mechanic) Mechanical maintenance technicians keep all the power plant and reactor mechanical systems and equipment running smoothly...

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The Five R’s of Nuclear Workforce Planning
Nov29

The Five R’s of Nuclear Workforce Planning

If you ask ten nuclear managers to define “workforce planning” you’ll likely get ten different answers. That’s not necessarily a bad thing; each organization, and even different groups within the same organization, is likely to have very different challenges that dictate what managers need from an effective workforce planning process and strategy. Examples include retaining talent in the midst of fierce competition, dealing with the pending loss of critical knowledge when retirees leave the workforce, and balancing workload with talent supply to optimize costs. While the problems and the strategies to address them cover a wide spectrum, the fundamental goals of every workforce planning strategy is “the five Rs”; to get the Right people, with the Right skills, in the Right place, at the Right time, at the Right cost. That’s tougher than it sounds because before you can execute the “five Rs” you have to know what the “right skills” are, where they’re needed, when they’ll be needed, and who possess them. Because nuclear energy facilities and the business and regulatory environment they operate in are ever-changing, workforce planning strategies need to be flexible, adaptable, and periodically refreshed. A systematic approach to workforce planning will ensure that strategies evolve with the business and the challenges.  In the nuclear industry we’re accustomed to the “Systematic Approach to Training.”  We need to add the “Systematic Approach to Workforce Planning” to our vocabulary. Having an agreed upon workforce planning approach is vitally important because it forms the basis for establishing the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders in executing effective workforce planning. Executives, line managers, workforce planning analysts, the financial organization, and the talent management team must collaborate to build and execute workforce strategies if they are to succeed. Each group must understand how they contribute to achieving that success. Having a mutually agreed upon process is the first step in obtaining that alignment. Here is one example of a workforce planning model.   What are your...

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